What is data presentation and analysis?
Data presentation and analysis forms an important part of all academic studies, commercial, industrial and marketing activities as well as professional practices. It is necessary to make use of collected data which is considered to be raw data which must be processed to put for any use. Data analysis helps in interpretation of data and take a decision or answer the research question. Data analysis starts with the collection of data followed by sorting and processing it. Processed data helps in obtaining information from it as the raw data is non comprehensive in nature. Presenting the data includes the pictorial representation of the data by using graphs, charts. maps and other methods. These methods help in adding visual aspect to data which makes it much easier and quick to understand.
Significance of data presentation and analysis
Data presentation and analysis plays an important role in every field. A great presentation can be a deal maker or deal breaker. Some people make extremely effective presentation with the same set of facts and figures which are available with others. At times people who did all the hard work but failed to present it present it properly have lost important contracts, the work which they did is unable to impress the decision makers. So in order to get the work done especially while dealing with clients or higher authorities presentation matters! No one is willing to spend hours in understanding what you have to show and this is exactly why presentation matters!
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Data analysis helps people in understanding the results of surveys conducted, makes use of already existing studies to obtain new results. Helps in validating the existing study or to add/expand existing study.
Data presentation and analysis or data analysis and presentation?
These two go hand in hand and it will be difficult to provide a complete differentiation between the two. Adding visual aspect to data or sorting it by means of grouping and presenting it in form of table is a part of presentation which further helps in analyzing data. During a study with an aim and multiple objectives, data analysis will be required to complete the required objectives and compiling or presenting the analysed data will help in overall analysis and concluding the study.
You can have variety of data which can be used in presentations. Some of these type include :
- Time Series Data
- Bar Charts
- Combo Charts
- Pie Charts
- Geo Map
- Scatter Charts
- Bullet Charts
- Area Chart
- Text & Images
Some of these have been described in brief with example in the end of this article.
Steps for presenting and analysis data:
- Frame the objectives of the study and make a list of data to be collected and its format.
- Collect/obtain data from primary or secondary sources.
- Change the format of data i.e. table, maps, graphs etc in desired format
- Sort data by means of grouping, discarding the extra data and deciding the required format to make data comprehensible
- Make charts and graphs to help adding visual part and analyse trends.
- Analyse trends and relate the information to fulfill the objectives.
Presenting the result:
- Presentation should have a predefined sequence of arguments being made to support the study. Start with stating the Aim of study and the objectives required to reach the aim.
- Break the objectives in multiple parts and make a list of data to be collected, the sources of data. form in which data exist and needs to be obtained, conducting primary survey for information which does not exist.
- Form and explain the methodology adapted to carry out study.
- Data collection by means of primary survey need to have well thought of sampling methods. This will help in reducing the efforts and increasing efficiency.
- Present only the required information and skip the background research to make your point more clear.
- Do not forget to give credits and references in the end and where ever required.
The presentation can be done by means of softwares such as Microsoft Powerpoint, Prezi, Google Analytics and other analytic softwares. It can also be done by making models, presenting on paper or sheets, on maps or by use of boards. The methods selected depends on the requirement and the resources available.
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How to present different type of data
Secondary surveys forms major part of data research and primary means of data collection by conducting various surveys and making use of existing data from various sources. The data thus obtained from various sources like Census department, Economics and Statistics department, Election Commission, Water Board, Municipal Bodies, Economic surveys, Website feedbacks, scientific research etc. is compiled and analyzed. Data is also required to forecast and estimate the change in requirement of various resources and thus provide them accordingly. Phasing and prioritization forms another important part for effective implementation of the proposals.
Different types of charts which can be used for data presentation and analysis.
Bar Charts/Bar Graphs: These are one of the most widely used charts for showing the grown of a companies over a period of time. There are multiple options available like stacked bar graphs and option of showing change in multiple entities. These look as shown in image below:
Line Chart: These are best for showing the change in population i.e for showing the trends. These also work well for showing the growth of multiple areas at the same time.
Pie Charts: These work best for representing the share of different components from a total 100%. For eg. contribution of different sectors to GDP, population of different states in a country etc.
Combo Chart: As the name suggest it is a combination of more than one chart type. The one shown in the figure below is a combination of line and bar graph. These saves space and are at times more effective then using 2 different charts. There can even be 3 or more charts depending on the requirement.