An example of “Systemic Change” Systemic change is the ceaseless flow of change through time. It is inevitable. The human dependency on his environment and his competitive behaviour causes changes…Read More

Collaborative Planning Theory is one of the most widely practiced theories which takes into account the roles  of the people for a better plan making. Four Components of Collaborative Planning…Read More

Political Economy Model in Urban Planning Political Economy Model aims at unearthing the power relations in and among different institutions. It studies the economic aspects of the government. It analyses the relation…Read More

Emergence of various planning concepts With the emergence of town or urban planning the need of research also grew. These research were an attempt to get a better understanding of…Read More

Evolution of different planning models Different authors and scholars coined different planning theories which evolved over time. Different theories were an attempt to refine the planning process so as to…Read More

The critical minimum effort theory was propounded by Prof. Harvey Leibenstein in his book Economic Backwardness and Economic growth. He discusses that underdeveloped countries are characterized by vicious circle of poverty which…Read More