In the event that you find it necessary to conduct any kind of investigation, you have access to numerous resources. In this section, we are going to talk about the methodology that is most recognizable to us: questionnaires. Utilizing any form of research method may be seen as having both positive and negative aspects. In order to assist you in making an educated decision, we have ranked the available choices from best to worst. In this piece, we will discuss the top ten advantages, some of which include how inexpensive it is, how simple it is to scale, and how soon it may give results. However, there are certain limitations to consider, such as the respondents’ inherent biases and the lack of opportunity for customization.
Advantages of questionnaires:
1. Efficient in terms of costs
This is an efficient method for gathering information at a low cost. By using this strategy, both the sender and the recipient might enjoy financial and logistical benefits. Utilizing questionnaires as part of the study methodology helps keep expenditures to a minimum. The only expenses involved with a questionnaire are those linked to the manufacture of paper as well as delivering the questionnaire. It is not required to pay a personal visit to each individual who responded to the survey.
As a consequence of this, there is no need to invest a significant amount of money in carrying out the investigation.
2. The All-Encompassing Nature of Its Reaches
This method is likely more successful than others, such as interviewing or watching people at random, when the population to be sampled is spread out across a large region, since it allows for a more representative sample. It makes it possible to provide coverage on a regional, national, and even international scale. The questionnaire makes it easier to communicate with a number of different persons who, using any other method, would have been impossible to approach.
It is able to provide simultaneous protection to a huge number of individuals. According to Goode and Hatt, the researcher may be able to save costs and reach a more geographically diverse sample of respondents by using the use of a questionnaire. It would be impracticable, for example, to travel to different locations and conduct interviews with members of the American Sociological Association owing to the high cost, in terms of both time and money. There is a chance that you won’t have enough time to plan that really important meeting.
However, polls could be sent to all of those members, and information could be compiled as a result. Because it wouldn’t be required to have a team of interviewers, it might be completed by a single researcher at a much reduced cost.
3. In terms of quickness
In the questionnaire technique, replies could come in pretty swiftly. In this situation, a personal visit to the respondent or continued participation in the study is not required, and both of these options are optional. In comparison to the other available methods, the postal questionnaire is the most efficient choice.
4. Suitable for Their Own Particular Type of Reaction
The best method to use for gathering information on a personal or confidential matter is to distribute and collect questionnaires. It is considerably easier to collect data on sensitive issues like sexual behavior, marital status, secret desires, and so on when the identity of the respondents are masked.
5. Details that are stated more than once
When it is necessary to acquire the same information at numerous intervals, the questionnaire technique is seen as being more beneficial and cost-effective than other approaches such as scheduling, interviewing, or observing. In certain circumstances, the same information must be gathered.
6. Most Effective Approach
In contrast to other approaches of study, questionnaires are far less complicated to conceive about, develop, and administer. In this case, a high degree of technical expertise is not required at all. You can also turn to mlm technical support if you still need technical expertise.
7. Respondents find it more convenient
Respondents are under less pressure to produce an immediate response to the question. In contrast to an interview or direct observation, which must be carried out at a time and location that has been previously established, he is free to provide his response whenever he sees fit in response to this inquiry.
This makes certain that the respondent’s attention is focused on all the questions that are pertinent to the study. The information is provided in a textual format, and this format assures some degree of consistency since the directions for recording responses are predetermined. As a result of the questionnaire, the replies we could provide were restricted.
9. An initial and useful report
Make use of the questionnaire as a jumping-off point for more in-depth research that may then be carried out in any way that you see fit.
10. Enhanced Validity
Questionnaires provide a number of beneficial features, particularly when it comes to the dependability of the data they collect. The quality of the documentation plays a significant role in determining the reliability of the data collected via methods such as interviews and observations. This is the point in the conversation when individuals are free to inject their own personal preferences and preconceptions into the conversation.
When employing a questionnaire, on the other hand, it is possible to see the responses of respondents in the format and language of their country of origin. As a result, there is absolutely no possibility for the researcher to erroneously interpret the data.
The respondent’s identity will not be revealed in any way to anybody else. Respondents who are aware that their identities will not be disclosed to anybody else are more willing to express their thoughts and feelings. When they express themselves in this manner, they feel more at ease and have less inhibition than when they do it in other ways.
12. Flexibility in Data Collection
Because it may be used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data, the questionnaire is the technique of data gathering that offers the greatest degree of adaptability.
DIsadvantages of questionnaires:
1. The Barest Minimum of a Reaction
One of the most significant limitations of the questionnaire is that it will only be of use to those respondents who have completed a significant amount of schooling. It is of no benefit to either those with poor literacy levels or people who have difficulties reading. People who are unreasonable in their contempt for research and reform, as well as people who unreasonably doubt the researcher’s intentions, sincerity, devotion, or commitment, are often excluded from the questionnaire.
This includes people who are too busy, too preoccupied, too lazy, too indifferent, too easygoing, or too shirkers. Despite the fact that these people are notoriously difficult to locate and include in the pool of respondents for data collection, it is essential to include them in the pool. As a consequence of this, questionnaires are not appropriate for a substantial portion of the population being studied.
2. Lack of opportunities for social interaction leads to isolation
Because the researcher in a questionnaire study does not go out into the field, it is impossible for him to develop a relationship with the individuals he is analyzing. There is no one present to either clarify any of the technical topics or answer any of the issues that the responder may have if he is having difficulty comprehending them.
The researcher puts in a lot of work to ensure that the questionnaire is easy to use and understand, but nothing beats getting a personal explanation of what the questionnaire is trying to accomplish. Additionally, we recommended characteristics and qualities of a good questionnaire. If the respondent is not given any opportunity for human interaction, they are less likely to feel motivated to complete the survey.
3. A Reaction That Is Not Adequate
When employing a postal questionnaire as a strategy, the response rate is often unsatisfactory. The findings may be influenced by a variety of factors, including the research organization, the persuasiveness of the questions, the sample demographic, the form and size of the questionnaire, any incentives that were supplied, and a variety of other factors.
4. An example of an inconsistency
There is no reason to confirm or believe the data that was acquired via the use of a questionnaire. There is nothing that can be done to demonstrate a causal connection if the subject misinterprets the question or gives a response that is inadequate or unclear.
This is because there is no way to verify the subject’s understanding of the question. However, while conducting an interview, you always have the option to ask the same questions in a different approach in order to get the answers you want. In the event that further background information is required, the questions may be re-asked. Nevertheless, while using the questionnaire method, there is no opportunity to repeat questions, explain them, or clarify any ambiguities that may exist in a particular response.
Within the confines of this structure, there is very little opportunity for assessing whether the response is genuine. In this situation, the researcher is unable to view the facial expressions or body language of the respondents. It is impossible for him to check the replies for inconsistencies or alterations in any manner. As a result, the responses that are collected via the use of a questionnaire technique are very suspicious.
Researchers face a big obstacle whenever they have to decipher handwriting that is difficult to read. It seems that some respondents are deleting and rewriting their responses an excessive amount. Because of them, it is now somewhat more challenging to comprehend the responses.
6. Disjointed entries
Most respondents’ questionnaire entries are typically extremely terrible. It’s possible that they’ll leave out responses to a number of questions or supply them in a way that makes it difficult for investigators to make sense of the data. In addition, there may be problems with the language, such as the use of acronyms and the usage of terms that are not apparent.
A questionnaire is rendered completely meaningless as a result of all of these factors. When conducting an interview, the investigator has significant face-to-face contact with the respondent, who may engage in dishonest behavior or offer false information.
This increases the likelihood that the respondent will provide incorrect information. In addition to gauging a respondent’s demeanor and determining how well they grasp the topic under investigation, he could also utilize cross-questioning to clear up any misconceptions that are widespread. The majority of the time, the person responding won’t have a choice but to provide an honest answer since they have no other option. On the other hand,
7. Errors are hard to detect
It is quite difficult to uncover errors that were committed by respondents in a questionnaire. In this instance, the investigator does not have access to the resources necessary to verify the data’s veracity. If the researcher isn’t there, respondents may submit data that has been tainted in some way.
8. It is useless for doing in-depth research projects
When employing the questionnaire method, the researcher is unable to delve particularly deeply into the respondents’ ideas, feelings, and motives. To successfully do any of these duties, the researcher must maintain consistent contact with the individuals who are the subject of the study.
Due to the fact that the researcher is not present in the field during a questionnaire study, there is no possibility for the researcher to establish a rapport with the respondent in this kind of study.
It is impossible for the researcher to ask any questions concerning the respondent’s personal life since they have not had any direct interaction with the respondent. Therefore, it is not viable to conduct an exhaustive inquiry utilizing a questionnaire as the primary data collection tool.
9. An unrepresentative cross-section of the population reacts
It is likely that the individuals who respond to the surveys will not constitute a sample that is representative of the whole population. Only those individuals who are either sufficiently mature, enough inquisitive, or sufficiently invested in the case should respond.
There is the possibility that a sizable percentage of the group will choose to maintain full silence. As a consequence of this, we are unable to put any stock in the outcomes.
10. Inability to relate to the topic at hand
A significant number of people who take part in a study could be unwilling to offer important data unless they have a favorable opinion of the objectives behind the investigation as well as the researcher who is carrying out the research.
Because the investigator does not have the opportunity to establish rapport with the subject via the use of the questionnaire, it is doubtful that the responder will provide a more accurate response.
11. Topics that are sensitive should not be discussed
Because of their sensitivity, intricacy, or secrecy, some research subjects may provide difficulties when attempting to construct questions about them. There are certain things that cannot be adequately described using words.