Town Planning process in post-Independence period in India
In India the urban population living amid pre-independence years was 13.9 percent in 1941, which rose to 17.3 percent in 1951. Before freedom about 15 percent individuals were living in towns and now their number had turned out to be simply doubled. The purposes behind an expansion in urban population are many, yet the primary reason has been a nonstop stream of provincial populace to urban zones. After freedom numerous goal-oriented measures were taken with a specific end goal to change the financial scene of urban regions through various five-year plans. Urban advancement accomplishments were wanted through arranging and in this way, autonomous India set out on a national program of general improvement. In this undertaking, ‘making Plans for urban advancement’ involved a prime place.
In 1950, the Planning Commission was set up by the Government of India with Jawaharlal Nehru as the Chairman and was given the assignment to additionally well-spoken and actualized programs through Five Year Plans, the National strategy orders and Development destinations. The setting of Planning Commission empowered the focal government to take the activities for strategy making through detailing of Five Year Plans. The national strategy issues were joined by the Government of India, which additionally dispense the assets to the state governments through different supported plans and help programs for the lodging and urban improvement in the nation all in all. Service of Urban Development, a peak specialist of Government of India at the national level details strategies, while focal services state government and the nearby bodies are given the assignment to screen the issue of urban advancement in the nation.
As per the Indian Constitution, urban improvement is a state subject. Without a sacred change, the focal government does not have energy to pass enactment on urbanization, urban advancement and urban arranging. Be that as it may, urban advancement as the state subject has gotten an insufficient consideration in every one of the states. Subsequently, what exists as the urban strategy for urban advancement, has evaluated more regularly than the focal government. Subsequently five-year plans were made as the Plan proposition for the urban improvement.
Timeline of important events with respect to town planning (post-Independence)
Just vital occasion from town planning perspective was a report by Health Survey and Development Committee under Sir Joseph Bhore. The real proposals of the Committee were:
- Creation of Ministry of Health and Town Planning in each region
- Fully prepared Provincial Directorates of Town Planning
- Appointment of a specialist in Central Ministry of Health to prompt and examine Town Planning Schemes in various regions submitted to Central Government for budgetary help
- Creation of Improvement Trusts in every substantial city in India.
Parcel of the nation amid 1947-48 gives scenery of urban strategy in India. A huge number of displaced people who touched base in North India from Pakistan looked for haven and business in different urban communities. In the process around 1 million individuals passed on and 10 million individuals removed and compelled to relocate to various urban communities of India. This advancement combined with work openings made in urban communities amid Second World War because of setting up of war creation plants, brought about generous increment in urban populace. The outcome was incredible increment in substandard lodging and ghettos. Consequently, top need was concurred to Refugee Rehabilitation, requiring private advancement on mass scale. Aimless advancement, constraints of Town Planning were gotten center including extraordinary deficiency of experts, non-presence of extensive Town Planning enactments in every one of the states and sloppiness of Town Planning divisions in the nation.
Plan of activities made to put town anticipating more grounded balance;
- Central Govt. activities in giving direction to state governments around the local area Planning began;
- Limitations of TPS – numerous in numbers in a city and by and large random to each other and frequently experiencing some miscommunication;
- Need for Master Plan as facilitated set of recommendations to investigate exhibit needs and future prerequisites.
- Bombay Town Planning Act 1954 – First exhaustive Act requiring Plan of Master Plan
- Master Plans to be set up by concerned neighborhood bodies inside a particular period and in this manner set the pace for an extensively efficient arranging in that state.
- Town Planning Schemes attempted from this point forward were to be inside the system of Master Plan
Changes and development in town planning after 1950|Emergence of Five Year Plans
First-Five Year Plan (1951-56)
This Plan was basically worried about the issues of farming area on the grounds that not long after autonomy these issues required earnest national consideration. Also, with restricted assets the administration gave top needs to accomplish objectives relating to farming. In this manner, the issues identified with urban advancement involved low position in the rundown of First Five Year needs.
Second Five-Year Plan (1956-61)
In this Plan an endeavor was made to operationalize the Modernization hypothesis. There was a conviction that, the underdevelopment could be overwhelmed by the specialized and authoritative structure that would have made advancement conceivable in the industrialized nations. Plan was started to give monetary help to the states and nearby bodies for clearing the squatter settlements and enormous ghettos in huge urban areas.
Third Five-Year Plan (1961-66)
In this Plan more consideration was paid to urban planning in India. Through this Plan government out of the blue, figured an urban planning and land approach. The principle goal of this strategy was to accomplish adjusted improvement in various urban territories of India by building up substantial, medium and little scale enterprises. The most vital commitment of planning in this Plan period was the dispersion of the thoughts of town planning from the center to the states.
Fourth Five-Year Plan (1969-74)
This Plan focused on the requirement for the provincial way to deal with the issue of the urban advancement, decongestion of urban communities, dispersal of urban populace, appropriation of the group improvement program for the urban areas and also the natural change in urban ghettos. Amid this Plan government perceived the critical need to check populace development of enormous urban areas like Calcutta (Kolkata) and Bombay (Mumbai) and furthermore to start populace dispersal to diminish weight on the huge urban areas.
Fifth Five-Year Plan (1974-79)
This Plan accentuated the requirement for the ecological change in huge urban communities. There was an expanded concern and acknowledgment of urban issues, among which urban destitution was generally vital. Numerous advancement programs were propelled and Urban Development Authorities were set up by the state governments in enormous urban communities.
Sixth Five-Year Plan (1980-85)
This Plan focused on more accentuation on the coordinated improvement of little and medium towns, as started in past plans. This was finished with the perspective of advancing improvement of residential communities as well as the provincial zones too, by their working as the development focuses.
Seventh Five-Year Plan (1985-90)
This Plan proceeded with continuous projects started in the before design and the legislature noticed the fast development of metropolitan urban areas and moderate development of little and medium towns, as demonstrated by insights of 1981 evaluation. Therefore, the Seventh Plan focused on the requirement for the coordinated improvement of little and medium towns and the requirement for moderating the development of metropolitan urban areas.
Eighth Five-Year Plan (1992-97)
The Eighth Five Year Plan underlined human advancement as the center for every formative exertion. The Plan was subjectively unique in relation to the past plans in its points, on the grounds that, lone through this Plan an obvious advance was normal in urban administration. It perceived for the more noteworthy contribution of the intentional offices that can exhibit and improve and go about as help systems to nearby level foundations. It likewise perceived the part of the legislature in encouraging the procedure of the general population’s inclusion by making the correct kind of institutional framework.
Ninth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002)
This Plan visualized for the development and change in social foundation like human services, instruction, lodging, water supply and sanitation in urban regions. For a few divisions like lodging, it was underlined to accomplish particular focuses inside a characterized time period for different areas, for example, wellbeing and instruction. Endeavors were made to accomplish generous development and change in the nature of administrations. Along these lines, urban areas got the acknowledgment it merited in this Plan.
Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007)
In this Plan the need was given to the improvement of decentralized Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) structure to adapt to the interest for essential infrastructural offices required in urban communities for their legitimate development. The part of the ULBs was critical for the urban advancement and they ought to enhance their capacities by preparing themselves to attempt in asset raising, administrations Plan and destitution mitigation.
Eleventh Five – Year Plan (2007-2012)
Eleventh Plan plot a complete procedure for advancement of both rustic and urban framework and characterized to incorporate electric power, streets, railroads, ports, airplane terminals, media communications, water system, drinking water, sanitation, stockpiling, and warehousing.
Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-2017)
Generally, framework used to be made by people in general division yet progressively, everywhere throughout the world, nations have tried different things with various types of open private association, especially in circumstances, where clients will pay a client charge which produces a potential income stream. A noteworthy new activity taken in the Twelfth Plan, to enhance execution of the Centrally Sponsored Schemes is to defend the quantity of the CSS, decreasing them from 142 to 66, and furthermore allowing more prominent adaptability in the rules.
Urban planning exercises spread on three levels- Center, State and Local. In spite of the fact that urban improvement strategies are identified by the state government, yet the central government has assumed a much imperative part in this field after the independence. In urban areas, local governments were set up with the end goal of urban development. Since urban local bodies have just those forces, which are given to them by the state government, the very fact also keeps them from accomplishing their objectives. Though the guidelines have changed since independence, the basic ideal behind any plan in India remains the same. The accomplishment of any Plan depends intensely on the nature of usage, and it is here that our planning is maybe the weakest. It is frequently said that our plans are great, however usage is poor. This is really a logical inconsistency. Planning must be called great in the event that it depends on a sensible evaluation of what can be executed, with solid proposition to expand usage limit as a major aspect of the system.