Industrialization and urbanization in terms of development approach has a great significance in history. Industrialization is refereed to the period of social and economic changes which transformed the humans society from agriculture Society (agrarian society to the industrial society. Industrialization is a part of a larger modernization processes in which economic changes i.e. development is closely linked with the social changes in the human society with involvement of technological advancements with particular focus on development of large-scale metallurgy & production process. It dealt with the mass production in factories for consumption of many by means of trade in market.
With industrialization large factories emerged which led to concentration of workers in limited urban areas which grew in size with time and gave rise to large towns where factory workers lived.
In simple words, the process of urbanization denotes population growth of the cities and towns. Sociologically, it also denotes the spread of urban way of life to the country-side. Thus, the process of urbanisation has demographic as well as social dimensions. In present times, with the spread of industrialisation, the process of urbanization has received unprecedented momentum all over the world and more specifically in the third world countries. It is predicated, on the basis of the current rates of urbanisation, that within a few decades the urban population of the third world countries will grow twice that of the present industrialised societies.
Urban growth coupled with industrial development induces rural-urban migration whereby the cities of bigger size, offering opportunities of improving life, tend to overflow with the rural migrants. On the one hand, such migration accelerates the pace of urbanisation and, on the other, it creates excessive population pressure on the existing public utilities with the result that cities suffer from the problems of slums, crime, unemployment, urban poverty, pollution, congestion, ill-health and several deviant social activities. In this context, it is essential to know the various facets of over urbanisation and urban problems in India.