How to conduct Intermediate Public Transport (IPT) Surveys

There are basically 3 types of vehicles which are fast moving (cars, 2 wheelers), slow-moving (cycle, animal-drawn vehicles) and the third category is the intermediate vehicles. Also called as ParaTransit vehicles, these are motorized vehicles of innovative designs, small in size, efficient in fuel consumption & reasonably fast. Paratransit vehicles include short trips and feeder to mass public transit, provide mobility in absence of public transport and act as an employment source for the poor.

Related: Pedestrian OD Survey Template (Editable) Sample 2

There are 2 types of IPT services:

  1. Door to door/contract carriage: This service is from origin to destination. E.g. taxi/ cycle rickshaw
  2. Informal public transport: This service has a fixed route. E.g. cabs and autos


Intermediate Public Transport Examples

Transportation survey is conducted to know the loopholes in the existing system and find appropriate solutions for the same to be applied in the future. Similarly, the aim of IPT Survey is to know the operational and user characteristics of the present system, identify the problems and issues and suggest policies and strategies for solving the problems in the future plan

Related: Methods of Data Collection

The 2 types of IPT survey:

  1. User survey – This includes the public that uses IPT
  2. Operator Survey – This includes the IPT drivers

Technique for conducting the survey is categorized into 8 major subheads as follows:

  1. Study area: It is the area for which the survey is conducted, contains the whole area for which transportation facilities are being planned and demarcates the boundary of the study area which is called external cordon (imaginary line)
  2. Zoning: It is done to understand travel pattern of the study area and its interaction with an external area and is the further subdivision of study area. E.g. 481 tells that survey area lies in sector 4, zone 8 and subzone 1.
  3. Formation of goals: Goal for the survey are formed for which survey will be done.
  4. Formation of team and questionnaire: In this people are selected as interviewers, a questionnaire is prepared for the survey and interviewers generally include transport engineers or other people from the transport department. Also, questions are formed on the basis of the goals to be achieved
  5. Data collection: Data collection is of two types which are as follows:
    1. Primary data: It can be conducted in 3 methods as follows
      1. Direct interview: This can be done at IPT stands or during the trip, however, it leads to delay and require large no. of interviewers
      2. Postcard collection and distribution: Outdated method and eliminates delay but results in poor response
      3. For user survey: online, during the trip
    2. Secondary data: It is the data collected from secondary sources like books, articles and internet includes literature study, the study of a legal framework, regulatory systems, and newspapers reports
  6. Analysis and evaluation of the data: Primary data can be evaluated for the flaws in the present IPT system, desires of the operator and users and how to overcome them in the future plan. Whereas, secondary data is collected like the existing and previous transportation plan to see how far they meet the desired objectives.
  7. Implementation of the programme: After the analysis is done, new laws which try to solve the problems observed in the survey are formed and implemented
  8. Update of the future plan: Future plans are updated and made by keeping in view the problems in the current system as observed from data collection and analysis and trying to solve them. This is one of the main objectives of the doing the survey


  • IPT play an important role in providing employment to migrants who come to cities for jobs. Also being relatively cheap, accessible and convenient mode of transport is used by urban poor and middle class as well.
  • IPT survey are done to know the problems in the present system and thus can be avoided in the future output demand
  • In many cases, women may not feel safe in moving IPT, thus better safety measures should be ensured
  • The public should be included in decision making as the plans are made for them and thus their problems, views, and suggestions for improvement should be noted
  • Some sort of campaigning should be done prior to the survey because some operator may not come to work on survey day would be conscious
  • User and operator should not be interviewed simultaneously cause in front of a user, an operator may not be able to discuss his finances.

Also Read: Primary Data Collection Methods | Need, Surveys & Types


  1. Kadiyali L. R. (1997). TRAFFIC ENGINEERING AND TRANSPORTATION PLANNING. Khanna Publishers 2-B Nath market, Nai Sarak Delhi-110006
  2. Sarkar P.K., Maitri Vinay and Joshi G.J. (2015). TRANSPORTATION PLANNING: PRINCIPLES, PRACTICES AND POLICIES . PHI Learning Private Limited. Delhi
  3. Engineering Planning Economics (2014). Comprehensive Mobility Plan Faridabad: Annexure Compilation, Annexure 2: Survey Formats. Wilbur Smith Associates. New Delhi. 
  5. Research report on INTEGRATING INTERMEDIATE PUBLIC TRANSPORT Within transport Regulation in a Megacity: a Kolkata Case study