A Monopoly is said to exist when a person/firm/company is the only supplier of a product/commodity or service. Pure monopoly – where only one producer exists in the industry In reality, rarely exists – always some form of substitute available Monopoly exists, where one firm dominates the market Firms may be investigated for examples of


An oligopoly is a market condition or form which occur when market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers called as oligopolists. Oligopolies can result because of various forms of collusion which reduce competition and lead to higher prices for buyers. Competition between few. May be a large number of firms in the industry but

Liberalization, Privatization, Globalization (LPG Model) in India

LPG Model in India After Independence in 1947 Indian government faced a significant problem to develop the economy and to solve the issues. Considering the difficulties pertaining at that time government decided to follow LPG Model. The Growth Economics conditions of India at that time were not very good. This was because it did not have

Collaborative Planning Theory

Collaborative Planning Theory

Collaborative Planning Theory is one of the most widely practiced theories which takes into account the roles  of the people for a better plan making. Four Components of Collaborative Planning Theory: 1. Arenas of discoursee are produced and reproduced. Arenas refers to the  spaces where negotiations and re-negotiations take place. Planning is an interactive and

Political Economy Model in Urban Planning

Political Economy Model

Political Economy Model in Urban Planning Political Economy Model aims at unearthing the power relations in and among different institutions. It studies the economic aspects of the government. It analyses the relation between impact of political actions such as policies and programmes on economics and the pure theory of economics which aims at studying the inter-relationships between

BPL Identification in India

below poverty line

Identification of people living below poverty line (BPL) in India is a task carried out by Govt. of India from time to time. The process and methods adopted varies from time to time. Various groups and committees were formed to decide who should be considered as “poor”. The Expert Group in August 2009 recommended the