Town Planning Concepts in Early 20th Century
Early 20th century marked the beginning of New Town Planning Concepts given by various prominent architects and town planners. New suggestions were given on change in material used for construction, form of city development on the basis of their function, concept of zoning evolved. Different architects gave various suggestions and concepts, some of them are listed below.
- Concept of linear cities was given by Soria Y Mata for Madrid in 1882. Concentric form of crowded cities were abandoned and linear form was adopted city expanded along the spine of communication.
- Sector and zoning were introduced in which land was divided as per different function/activity like industrial, residential, institutional, transportation. They were checked for conflicts, relation and compatibility.
- Green belts were used for buffering/separating different zones and activities.
- Street hierarchy was elaborated for the first time & issues like pedestrian safety was realized with beginning of motorcars and motor age.
- Streets were laid on decentralization of large cities and providing better living condition and standards for residents of crowded cities.
- Standards for population densities were proposed and adopted. Ground coverage was kept low with large open spaces. Total population was restricted and concept of blocks prevailed.
- Large blocks, called superblocks were introduced in Radburn, town of motor age which were ranging from 30 to 50 acres of size.
- Use of steel and reinforced cement concrete marked the construction of high rise buildings and skyscrapers which were surrounded by open or green areas.
- Concept plans were revised considerably and streets were laid on residential zones & housing arrangement.
- Underpasses were introduced which separated pedestrian walks from traffic roadways
These changes in rules, forms and approach were brought by different architects and planners, some of the main are Soria Y Mata, Tony Garnier, Ludwig Hilberseimer, Le Corbusier, Henry Wright & Frank Lloyd Wright.