Construction of individual toilets under SBM through Slum Level Federations (SLF)- Case of Andhra Pradesh

Govt. of Andhra Pradesh is the first state to declare all Urban Areas as Open Defecation Free (ODF) on 2nd October 2016. A total 2,27,863 individual toilets were constructed by GoAP of which 1,12,362 toilets were constructed through Slum Level federations (SLFs). Engagement of SLF for toilet construction resulted in achieving the target set by the state. This case study focuses on Andhra Pradesh, India, where state initiative has extensively made responsible the Slum Level Federations(SLF) for construction of individual toilets under Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM).

Plan & Mission


To achieve the status of Open Defecation Free (ODF) through enhanced access to safe sanitation facilities, the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh (GoAP) involved the Self-help groups(SHGs) through Slum Level Federation (SLF)  in the state to construct individual toilets on-behalf of beneficiaries under Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM).

Activities undertaken:

  • Slum Level federations through their Self Help Groups have identified the list of households who do not have access to individual toilets in each ward of the ULBs in the state.
  • Capacity building programmes on toilet construction were undertaken to the SLFs and were given the responsibility of identifying the construction worker for undertaking toilet construction available locally.
  • Stage wise reporting on progress of toilet construction as per SBM norms were also undertaken by SLFs.
  • Activities like uploading of geo-tagged pictures on the SBM portal and follow-up of for fund transfer by ULB/ SAC is also given to SLF for the toilets that were constructed by SLFs.

Related: E- Toilet in Smart Cities in India | Need and Funding

Institutional Mechanism:

The GoAP leveraged the existing SHGs and SLFs network to be part of achieving SBM in the state.  A SHG is a small  group of persons who come together with the intention of finding a solution to a  common problem with a degree of self-sufficiency. A group of 20 SHGs can together form a Slum Level Federation (SLF). GoAP has established Swachha Andhra Corporation (SAC) to fulfil the Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of “Swachh Bharat” by eliminating open defecation, eradication of manual scavenging, Solid and Liquid Waste Management, Information, Education and Communication and Capacity Building activities to maintain the cleanliness and hygiene in urban and rural areas of Andhra Pradesh. Swachha Andhra Corporation is taking up the activities of construction of Individual Household Toilets, Community Toilets and Public Toilets. The SAC through Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) identified SLFs to be engaged for construction of toilets. A reward of Rs 250 per toilet was provided to SLFs for construction of each of the toilet over and above the funds under SBM.  Funding for toilet construction was provided by Swachh Andhra Corporation through respective Urban Local Bodies to SLF accounts.

Impact/Key achievements:

  • Engagement of SLFs resulted in achieving 50 % of the targeted individual toilets in AP within two years duration
  • A total of 1,12,362 individual toilets are constructed through SLF against the target of 2.27 lakh individual toiles in the state.

Author Bio: I am K B Ranjit Kumar having educational background in Planning. Currently, i am working as Sr Project Consultant at Ernst & Young LLP, Hyderabad. Have experience in Urban Sanitation, Governance and Urban Planning.