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Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) GDP is an estimated value of the total worth of a country’s production and services, within its boundary, by its residents whether nationals and foreigners, generally calculated over for one year or some specified time period. It can also be understood as production within boundaries of a country irrespective of production


A Monopoly is said to exist when a person/firm/company is the only supplier of a product/commodity or service. Pure monopoly – where only one producer exists in the industry In reality, rarely exists – always some form of substitute available Monopoly exists, where one firm dominates the market Firms may be investigated for examples of


An oligopoly is a market condition or form which occur when market or industry is dominated by a small number of sellers called as oligopolists. Oligopolies can result because of various forms of collusion which reduce competition and lead to higher prices for buyers. Competition between few. May be a large number of firms in the industry but

Monopolistic Competition

Monopolistic Competition is a form of imperfect competition in which one selling/buying firm dominates the market. This firm regulates the prices in the market as no other firm is large enough to make significant changes to price. Characteristics: Large number of firms in the industry May have some element of control over price due to

Perfect Competition

Perfect competition in economics refers to condition in market in an ideal situation. In this situation price for all goods and services are decided by market on basis of competition and no external intervention takes place. Characteristics of perfect competition  are given below: Perfect Competition It is one extreme of the market structure spectrum Characteristics:

Examples of Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects

Some examples of Public Private Partnership projects in transport sector in India Some of the well-known Public Private Partnership projects in India are mentioned below. SECOND VIVEKANANDA BRIDGE (now Sister Nivedita Bridge) in Kolkota: This bridge is one the first BOT projects, undertaken in 1995. The concession agreement was signed in September;2002. The consortium members are