As the world becomes more technologically reliant, the number of digital items is increasing. Companies must, therefore, concentrate on the performance and dependability of their products. Only by doing so will they be able to overtake their rivals. In order to accomplish this, functional and non-functional testing are important pillars.
Functional testing focuses on confirming that a software program adheres to stated specifications. Moreover, it ensures that it performs as intended. It goes into great detail about the “what” of software functionality. Additionally, it assesses how well user interactions and feature’s function.
Non-functional testing, on the other hand, investigates the “how” of software performance in contrast. It emphasizes factors including usability, security, and speed. These are factors that have a big effect on the user experience.
Hence, in this blog, we will go deeper into functional and nonfunctional testing. We see the relationship between them, the types of testing under them, tools, and more. So, make sure you read till the end to gain a deep understanding.
What is the relationship between functional and non-functional testing?
The relationship between functional and non-functional testing is integral. It ensures the overall development of software applications. These two testing paradigms work in tandem. Moreover, each test contributes distinct but interconnected aspects to the assessment of software:
1. User-centric approach
The goal of functional and non-functional testing is to enhance the user experience. Functional testing ensures that the software’s core functionality meets user expectations. Meanwhile, non-functional testing evaluates how smoothly users can interact with the app. As a result, the combination of these testing types ensures that software performs for end-users.
2. Impact on user satisfaction
A software application can have flawless functionality. However, if the software could be faster and more manageable, it can lead to user satisfaction. The relationship between functional and non-functional testing lies in recognizing this experience. Together, both testing methods ensure that both aspects work harmoniously. Ensuring that features work correctly (functional) and efficiently (non-functional) directly impacts user satisfaction.
3. Iterative improvement
The feedback loop between functional and non-functional testing is iterative. Functional testing often identifies issues with specific features. Meanwhile, non-functional testing identifies performance bottlenecks or security vulnerabilities. Developers and QA teams use this feedback to refine the software. They, as a result, implement the essential changes in both areas. This results in an overall positive app experience.
There are various types of testing that come under these two pillars. But what are the types of functional testing and non-functional testing? Let’s see.
What are the types of testing under both methods?
There are two major types of testing: functional and non-functional testing. Both testing approaches cover a variety of distinct testing strategies. Moreover, each category has a distinct objective and focus:
I – Types of functional testing
Functional testing forms the backbone of software validation. Thus, the following are some of the testing types under functional testing:
1. Unit testing
This isolates each component of the software and tests each one to verify proper operation. Moreover, developers often conduct unit tests during the coding phase.
2. Integration testing
Integration testing ensures that all of the software’s components operate in unison. Furthermore, it checks for interactions and data flow between integrated parts.
3. System testing
System testing evaluates the entire software system. This ensures that the software meets the specified requirements. Moreover, it tests end-to-end functionality, user interfaces, and overall system behavior.
4. User acceptance testing (UAT)
UAT involves real users testing the software to determine whether it meets their expectations. Moreover, it helps assess if the software is ready for production deployment.
II – Types of non-functional testing
Nonfunctional testing is equally vital as it goes beyond mere features. The following types ensure different elements are verified within the software:
1. Performance testing
Performance testing does not display a one-size-fits-all approach. This is why it has various approaches under it. Here are some of the subtypes:
- Load testing: Assesses performance under expected loads.
- Stress testing: Identifies system breaking points under extreme conditions.
- Scalability testing: Measures the system’s ability to scale with changing loads.
- Capacity testing: Determines maximum system capacity for scalability planning.
2. Security Testing
The testing focuses on identifying vulnerabilities and weaknesses in the software. It includes:
- Vulnerability scanning: Identifies known security vulnerabilities.
- Penetration testing: It uses simulations of actual attacks to find vulnerabilities.
- Security auditing: Evaluates adherence to security standards and policies.
- Usability testing: Assesses software’s UI and UX for user-friendliness. So, this involves real users in tasks and feedback.
3. Compatibility testing
This testing ensures that the software functions correctly across different devices. It also encompasses various hardware, browsers, OS, networks, etc.
4. Reliability testing
This testing type measures the software’s stability and its ability to perform consistently over time without any glitches.
Let us get an understanding of the process of execution ahead to know more about both testing methods.
What is the process of functional and non-functional testing?
In the pursuit of high-quality software, functional and non-functional testing processes are indispensable. So, let’s take a look:
I – Functional testing process
Functional testing is where you ensure seamlessness in each element, right from a button to user interaction. Consequently, you must adhere to a planned procedure:
1. Requirements analysis
Begin by thoroughly understanding the functional requirements of the software. Moreover, this step involves reviewing documentation, specifications, and user stories. Also, this step identifies what the software is expected to do. Furthermore, develop a test plan outlining the scope, objective, etc.
2. Test execution
Execute the test cases on the software, verifying whether it behaves as expected. Moreover, this often involves interaction with the user interface, APIs, and data processing.
3. Defect reporting
If any discrepancies or defects are identified during testing, document them thoroughly. So, this documentation includes steps to reproduce and the severity of the issue. Furthermore, share this information with the development team for resolution.
4. Test reporting
Generate test reports summarizing the test results. As a result, it includes the number of test cases executed, pass/fail status, and defect details. Moreover, you can also hire functional testing services for optimum execution.
II – Non-functional testing process
As non-functional testing helps you identify any unseen bottlenecks, you need to be thorough in your process. The following is the process which will help you be effective:
1. Requirements analysis
Start by understanding non-functional requirements such as performance, security, and usability. Additionally, examine the documentation and specifications to identify any unmet software expectations. Furthermore, create a test strategy.
2. Test execution
Use the given scenarios to carry out the non-functional tests. Moreover, load, stress, and scalability testing may be included in performance tests. Security exams also concentrate on finding weaknesses.
3. Defect reporting
Any non-functional problems or vulnerabilities found during testing should be documented. Additionally, rank them in order of severity and inform the development team of your conclusions.
4. Final evaluation
Rerun non-functional tests following optimizations. As a result, this second run makes sure the software effectively satisfies the non-functional requirements.
We observe an organized approach to both testing techniques, but what tools are employed for them? Let’s talk about this now!
What are the functional and non-functional testing tools used?
Utilizing the right testing tools is pivotal as it ensures overall testing effectiveness. So, here’s an overview of the essential functional and non-functional tools for each category:
I – Tools used for functional testing
Functional testing demands the use of several effective tools. So here are some famous tools in it:
Selenium is one of the most famous open-source programs. It is proficient in automatically testing web apps. Furthermore, it supports a variety of browsers and programming languages.
2. JUnit and TestNG
These are Java frameworks that make it easier to perform unit testing. These frameworks also help in creating and executing test cases.
It is a behavior-driven development tool. It makes it easier for you to develop plain text test scenarios. Moreover, combining it with selenium is highly effective in automated testing.
Appium is an open-source program that is the best for automating mobile apps. Moreover, it is supported by Android and IOS.
Testcomplete is a specially designed tool for profit. It puts special emphasis on test automation. Moreover, great success can be seen in this tool with online, mobile, and desktop apps.
Postman can make testing APIs a smooth process for you. Furthermore, it includes API test automation, functional testing, and performance testing.
II – Tools used for non-functional testing
Due to the fact that non-functional testing necessitates the verification of several factors, such as speed, you need a wide variety of efficient instruments. Here are a few of them that could be useful to you:
1. Apache JMeter
It is a performance and load testing tool that is open source. It also covers databases, web applications, and other things.
This is a tool from Micro Focus for performance testing. The program measures system performance when under load and simulates virtual users.
3. OWASP ZAP
It is an open-source security testing tool. It displays a specialty in designing for finding vulnerabilities in web applications.
It is a network protocol analyzer used for deep inspection of network traffic. As a result, the tool is helpful in diagnosing network-related issues.
This is an open-source load-testing tool written in Scala. The program is also used to test the performance of online applications.
6. Burp Suite
It is a tool for security testing that integrates both automated and manual testing methods. It reveals weaknesses in web applications as a result.
To sum up
Functional and non-functional testing focus on different aspects. However, they are essential to execute together. Not only do they help ensure that the software provides a whole experience, but they also make sure that the apps do not lag in any element. However, to take both testing methods to perfection, correct execution and knowledge are required. Through this blog, we aimed to provide you with the same. So, don’t wait any further; take your software to its optimum performance now!