Effect On Quality Of Life Of Seemapuri Slum Dwellers Upon Relocation


Aim:  To evaluate the quality of life in slums pre-relocation as well as post-relocation of slum dwellers of Seemapuri.

Source:http://www.chem.info/news/2012/09/trash-energy-plan-worries-ragpickers

Objectives: 

  • To discuss the existing living conditions of urban poor in the study area, i.e, Seemapuri
  • To study existing policies for slums in Delhi.
  • To analyse the relocation process and its effect on life of urban poor.

Scope:

To attain the above stated objectives, the present study has the following scopes:

  1. The study will cover the quality of the settlement in terms of their housing conditions, demography, socio-economic aspects (religion, caste, education, occupation, and monthly per capita income), social infrastructure, water supply, drinking water, sewerage disposal, solid waste disposal, sanitation, toilet facility, safety.
  2. Seemapuri relocation proposal project to be implemented for the slum dwellers.
  3. The effect of resettlement on the life of slum dwellers of seemapuri in terms of their quality of life.
  4. The quality of life indicators are objective in nature since the relocation project is a proposal to be implemented in the near future.

Limitations:

  1. The study covers only one settlement colony due to short time span.
  2. The quality of life indicators that will not be included in the study are type of ration card holders, type of media consumption, mode of savings, cleaning of house, ventilation, transportation network, land use, land ownership, street lighting, government services and responsibilities, fire and police stations, assets.

Introduction/ Need for study:

Many countries are facing the problem of regional disparities in the levels of development. This has resulted in rising poverty, particularly in developing countries. It forces people from different states to migrate to the capital city in search of employment opportunities and a better quality of life. This has led to growth of squatter settlements, i.e., slums which come up on public lands, marginal open spaces and along the road, railway tracks, etc. India is emerging as one of the fastest urbanizing countries in the world and has reached a staggering urban population of 285 million (2001 census).It is estimated that by the middle of this century or probably earlier, the country would be more urban than rural. The economic base of the nation through expanding industries, trade, commerce and services has already shifted to the urban centres. In 2001, only 1/3 of the country’s population was living in urban areas. Nonetheless, even at such a low level of urbanization, the total urban population is very large. In 1991, of the 20 largest cities in the world, three (Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi) were from India. In 2001, 6 of the 20 largest metropolises in the world were from India. Measurement of quality of life offers an appropriate means for achieving such an understanding, for study of quality of life establishes a link between local authorities and citizens for constructive interaction leading to interpretation of and discussion on key issues affecting people’s lives. Results of studies on quality of life can be used to identify again previous political strategies and to design future planning policies, and, as a result, to achieve the objectives of development plans (Lee, 2008: 1207; Ahmadvand et al., 2012: 106). Thus, planning for development of quality of life as a basic principle has always received attention from planer and managers of development (Ghalibaf et al., 2011: 34).

Abstract:

Urbanisation and an ever increasing number of informal settlements are among today’s most serious challenges to sustainable urban development.  In the developing world, there is a high rate of migration to urban areas which has further worsened the situation. The people who relocate from rural to urban areas in search for better economic opportunities such as employment often choose to settle in informal areas (Tsenkova, 2010) because of high cost of living in the cities. The starting point of the development of human communities is the formation of a correct understanding of people’s needs and then the investigation of the achievements of development. Measurement of quality of life offers an appropriate means for achieving such an understanding, for study of quality of life establishes a link between local authorities and citizens for constructive interaction leading to interpretation of and discussion on key issues affecting people’s lives. This study is a descriptive- analytical inquiry and covers the overview of existing conditions in Seemapuri and study of relocation project of Seemapuri. The relocation should be done in accordance with the needs of the slum residents since “one size does not fit all”.

Site Context:

Seema Puri is a 30-year-old settlement in the capital consisting mostly of slums. The living conditions here are cramped and unhygienic. The inhabitants are mostly migrants from other states who work as daily wage labourers, drivers, rag-pickers, construction workers or street vendors/shopkeepers.

No. of H.HPopulationArea(ha)Density (person/ha)Average income (Rs./day)
Delhi10072764616787941147488113.82n.a
Seemapuri slums1577850.451744.4200-300

Site Details:

Block D, New Seemapuri, J.J Cluster Settlement, East Delhi.

Location: d-block, New Seema Puri
Households: 157
Land owning agency: DUSIB
Land area: 4956sq.m.

Relocation Site:

Proposed relocation site has been identified on the city periphery, named PHOOT KURD, adjacent to bawana industrial estate and bawana village.

100 families of slum in SEEMAPURI will be shifted to flats in Delhi’s PHOOT KURD in response to AAP government’s push to give respectable housing facilities to the residents of jhuggi jhopris in the city.

The AAP government through the DUSIB formulated “Delhi Slum & JJ Rehabilitation and Relocation Po
licy, 2015” for the resettlement of jhuggi jhopri bastis across the city.

Study Design:
Survey Sample

The study of Seemapuri slums was done taking a random sample from 157 households of the slum cluster. In the whole ward, 28 households were personally surveyed. SAMPLE= 28 H.H out of 157 H.H =17% size.

The aspects and components used to measure the quality of life have been listed down in the following table:

PARAMETERINDICATORMEASURING ITEMS
Housing

 

Type Of Dwelling
Piped Water In The House
Electricity For Lighting
Type Of Sanitation
Satisfaction With Dwelling
quantitative data- mean and standard deviation used
categoric data and dichotomous data set- % used
Income/GDP Per

Person

Income Per Month
Satisfaction With Money Available
Satisfaction With Standard Of Living
Perceived Socio-Economic Status
quantitative data- mean and standard deviation used
categoric data and dichotomous data set- % used
Jobs/EmploymentType Of Employment
Satisfaction With Working Conditions
quantitative data- mean and standard deviation used
categoric data and dichotomous data set- % used
EducationYears Of Education
Literacy Rate
School Enrolment Rate
quantitative data- mean and standard deviation used
categoric data and dichotomous data set- % used
Civic Engagement/

Good Governance

Participation In Elections
Satisfaction With Local Government
quantitative data- mean and standard deviation used
categoric data and dichotomous data set- % used
Life SatisfactionPerceived Life Satisfaction
Perceived Happiness
SafetyCrime Ratequantitative data- mean and standard deviation used
categoric data and dichotomous data set- % used
Age, GenderRespondent’s Age
Respondent’s Gender
quantitative data- mean and standard deviation used
categoric data and dichotomous data set- % used


Discussion of Results:

The relocation site and the present site have some contrasting characteristics:

PARAMETERSEEMAPURI SLUM SITEPHOOTKURD RELOCATION SITE
Housing

 

Dwelling- semi-pucca
Piped Water- no
Electricity- illegal
Sanitation- no
Satisfaction With Dwelling
Dwelling- pucca
Piped Water-yes
Electricity-legal
Sanitation- toilet and bath in each unit
Satisfaction With Dwelling
Income/GDP Per

Person

Income Per Month-low
Satisfaction With Money Available-no
Satisfaction With Standard Of Living-no
Perceived Socio-Economic Status-poor
Income Per Month-assumed to be better
Satisfaction With Money Available-yes
Satisfaction With Standard Of Living-yes
Perceived Socio-Economic Status-better
Jobs/EmploymentType Of Employment-rag pickers
Satisfaction With Working Conditions-no
Type Of Employment-labour
Satisfaction With Working Conditions-yes
EducationYears Of Education-8-10
Literacy Rate-low
School Enrolment Rate-less
Years Of Education-increase
Literacy Rate-better
School Enrolment Rate-increase
Life SatisfactionPerceived Life Satisfaction-no
Perceived Happiness-no
Perceived Life Satisfaction-yes
Perceived Happiness-yes
SafetyCrime Rate- moreCrime Rate- gated community

 

Inferences:

  • the change in quality of life can be achieved only by practical interventions and not going by the book.
  • hope to prosper should be there and interventions should keep those aspirations lively.
  • low wages and job uncertainty have been dealt nicely, by locating the people next to an industrial site, providing them with fixed and assured income generator.
  • security and safety are essential for survival, the gated communities provide the same so that people can live peacefully with no fear of future eviction and invest on their neighbourhood.
  • proper and regulated basic amenities will be provided them with all required infrastructure.
  • education and skill development centre to initiate and enhance their skills and create awareness about their livelihood and living conditions so they improve their literacy rate, education is the sole parameter of progress.
  • community area and open parks for leisure and recreation, a way to build up their social life as well.

About the Author:
Aashima Aggarwal is an Architect, she earned her Bachelor of Architecture degree from Dr. A.P.J Abdul Kalam Technical University,Lucknow in 2016 with merit honours in it. Currently she is pursuing her masters (M.Arch in M.Ekistics) from Jamia Millia Islamia University,Delhi. She likes writing about the topics which are a mix of urban planning and economics. Urbanscapes and informal settlements adds to her list of interest. Previously, she has worked with International Firm, Innowaves Design Services Pvt. Ltd., Noida.

More detailed work can be downloaded here.

 

Keywords: Informal settlements, Quality of life, Urbanisation, Relocation, J.J clusters, Seemapuri slums, Slum dwellers

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